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Chiridotidae

Members of this family have 10, 12, or 18 pelto-digitate tentacles bearing 3-10 digits on each side. They lack podia, radial canals and respiratory tree. The soft wall of the body is supported by bones, which, as a rule, the shape of a wheel with ...

Cucumaria

Listed alphabetically. Cucumaria ijimai Ohshima, 1915. Cucumaria sachalinica Dyakonov, 1949. Cucumaria munita Sluiter, 1901. Cucumaria planciana Delle Chiaje, 1841. Cucumaria savelijevae Baranova, 1980. Cucumaria brevidentis. (Brevidentis кукумар ...

Dactylochirotida

Dactylochirotida is an order of primitive sea cucumbers. Unlike other sea cucumbers, their tentacles are not divided into multiple branches, and the body is enclosed within a flexible shell-like structure called a test.

Dendrochirotida

Dendrochirotida are an order of sea cucumbers. Members of this order have branched tentacles and are suspension feeders. Examples include Thyonella and Cucumaria.

Elasipodida

Elasipodida is an order of sea cucumbers. They have numerous appendages, including conical papillae and leaf-like tentacles. Although many species are benthic, a number are pelagic, and may have their appendages modified to form sails or fins. Mo ...

Enypniastes

Enypniastes is a genus of deep-sea cucumber. Due to its unique appearance, the genus has been dubbed the headless chicken fish, headless chicken monster, and the Spanish dancer. It is also known as the "swimming sea cucumber".

Gnathophiurina

Ophiactidae Matsumoto, 1915. (Ophiactidae Мацумото, 1915) Ophiothricidae Ljungman, 1867. Amphilepididae Matsumoto, 1915. (Amphilepididae Мацумото, 1915) Ophiocomidae Ljungman, 1867. Amphiuridae Ljungman, 1867. Ophionereididae Ljungman, 1867.

Gorgonocephalidae

Gorgonocephalidae is a family of basket stars. They have characteristic many-branched arms. Holocephali several brittle stars Gorgonocephalus stimpsoni highest can reach 70 cm in arm length with a disk diameter of 14 cm

Holothuriida

Holothuriida is an unranked clade of sea cucumbers, but is referred to as an order. Taxa within Holothuriida were previously classified in the order Aspidochirotida, which was determined to be polyphyletic in 2017. Some taxa were also reclassifie ...

Leptopentacta

The World Register of Marine Species includes the following species in the genus:- Leptopentacta panamica Deichmann, 1941. Leptopentacta tergestina M. Sars, 1857. Leptopentacta nova Deichmann, 1941. Leptopentacta grisea Clark, 1938. Leptopentacta ...

Molpadiida

Molpadiida is an order of sea cucumbers. The body shape is fusiform and unlike other sea cucumbers, their hind body is narrowed to form a distinct tail. Although they possess tentacles around the mouth derived from the water vascular system, they ...

Monamphiura

Monamphiura apicula Cherbonnier, 1957. Monamphiura algida Fell, 1962. Monamphiura alba Fell, 1962a. Monamphiura aster. (Monamphiura Астер) Monamphiura sundevalli. Monamphiura proposita. Monamphiura heraldica Fell, 1962a.

Myriotrochidae

Members of this family have digitate tentacles, bearing 2-8 digits on each side. They lack podia, radial canals and respiratory tree. The soft wall of the body is supported by bones, which, as a rule, wheel-shaped with 8 or more spokes. They are ...

Oegophiurida

The Oegophiurida are an order of brittle stars, class Ophiuroidea. Physical characteristics of this order include well separated lateral plates, which exposes the oral surface of the radial bone. It also has vertebrae with streptospondylous artic ...

Ophiactidae

The following genera are recognised by the World Register of Marine Species: Ophiopus Ljungman, 1867. Hemipholis Lyman, 1865. (Hemipholis Лайман, 1865) Histampica A.M. Clark, 1970. Ophiopholis Muller & Troschel, 1842. Ophiactis Lutken, 1856. (Lut ...

Ophiocomidae

Ophiocomidae has been placed along with Ophionereididae to the superfamily Ophiocomidea and infraorder Gnathophiurina or suborder Gnathophiurina in different classifications.

Ophiolepididae

The fossils of Ophiolepididae date back to the Anisian age of the Middle Triassic. The family includes the following living genera: Ophiozonoida. Amphipholizona. Ophiurodon. Ophiomaria. Ophiothyreus. Ophiuroconis. Ophioplinthus. Aspidophiura. Oph ...

Ophionereididae

Ophionereididae has been placed along with Ophiocomidae to the superfamily Ophiocomidea and infraorder Chilophiurina or suborder Chilophiurina in different classifications. Ophionereididae contains the following genera: Ophioneroides. Ophiotriton ...

Ophiopholis

The following species are recognised by the World Register of Marine Species: Ophiopholis brachyactis H.L. Clark, 1911. Ophiopholis mirabilis Duncan, 1879. Ophiopholis pilosa Djakonov, 1954. Ophiopholis aculeata Linnaeus, 1767. Ophiopholis kenner ...

Ophiopsila

Ophiopsila glabra Koehler, 1930. Ophiopsila timida Koehler, 1930. Ophiopsila multipapillata Guille & Jangoux, 1978. Ophiopsila multispina Koehler, 1930. Ophiopsila brevisquama Koehler, 1930. Ophiopsila polysticta H.L. Clark, 1915. Ophiopsila dila ...

Ophiothrix

Ophiothrix is a large genus that is currently divided into the following three subgenera: Acanthophiothrix, Ophiothrix and Theophiothrix. Extant species include:

Ophiurina

There is currently no consensus as to the subdivision of the Ophiurina traditionally, the infraorders have been treated as suborders. It contains the genera Amphiura, Amphipholis, and Ophiacantha. The suborder is divided into the following last i ...

Persiculida

Persiculida is a rankless clade of sea cucumbers, but is referred to as an order. Taxa within Persiculida were previously classified in an order called Aspidochirotida, which was determined to be polyphyletic in 2017.

Phrynophiurida

Phrynophiurida have bursae for gas exchange and excretion. Their ventral arm shields are rudimentary, and dorsal shields usually absent. Arms sometimes are branched, and can coil vertically. The vertebrae are joined by hourglass-shaped surfaces. ...

Polycheira

Polycheira is a genus of holothurians found in tropical Indo-Pacific. A curious pattern of reproduction has been found in Polycheira rufescens, where specimens change sex from male to female and female to male in a reproductive season

Pseudocnus

The World Register of Marine Species includes the following species in the genus:- Pseudocnus echinatus von Marenzeller, 1881. Pseudocnus sentus OLoughlin & Alcock, 2000. Pseudocnus pawsoni Won & Rho, 1998. Pseudocnus spinosus Ohshima, 1915. Pseu ...

Psychropotes

Psychropotes is a genus of sea cucumbers in the family Psychropotidae. All members of this genus possess the ability to swim, although this is only facultative.

Stichopodidae

Members of this family are mostly large or medium-sized holothuroids with a squarish cross-section, a flat ventral surface, and large, fleshy, cone-shaped projections. Their mouths are surrounded by 20 peltate tentacles. They are usually found on ...

Synallactida

Synallactida is a rankless clade of sea cucumbers, but is referred to as an order. Taxa within Synallactida were previously classified in an order called Aspidochirotida, which was determined to be polyphyletic in 2017.

Synaptidae

Synaptidae is a family of sea cucumbers that have no tube feet, tentacle ampullae, retractor muscles, respiratory trees, or cuvierian tubules. They also lack radial canals of the water-vascular system, with only the circumoral ring present. Synap ...

Thelenota

They are massive sea cucumbers, more or less rectangular in cross-section. The oral face called trivium is flat, and covered with numerous aligned podia. The tegument is thick, and covered with thick papillae and other tubercles. The oral tentacl ...

Trachythyone

The World Register of Marine Species includes the following species in the genus:- Trachythyone maxima Massin, 1992. Trachythyone flaccida Thandar, 2013. Trachythyone peruana Semper, 1868. Trachythyone glaberrima Semper, 1869. Trachythyone nina D ...

Cephalodiscus

Cephalodiscus agglutinans Harmer & Ridewood, 1914. Cephalodiscus nigrescens Lankester 1905. Cephalodiscus densus Andersson 1907. Cephalodiscus australiensis author unknown. Cephalodiscus kempi John, 1932. Cephalodiscus calciformis Emig, 1977. Cep ...

Clonograptus

Clonograptus is a genus of graptolites. Groups of these animals were connected by stalklike structures to a central region. Species of Clonograptus are zone fossils, that help us estimate a precise age of Ordovician rocks.

Harrimaniidae

Harrimaniidae is a basal family of acorn worms. A taxonomic revision was undertaken in 2010, and a number of new genera and species found in the Eastern Pacific were described. There is some indication that Stereobalanus may be a separate basal a ...

Planctosphaera

Planctosphaera pelagica is a hemichordate and the only known representative of the class Planctosphaeroidea. The species is known only by its free swimming larvae. Larvae tornaria larvae very similar to those closely related to Enteropneusta, whi ...

Ptychodera

Ptychodera bahamensis Spengel, 1893. Ptychodera erythrea Spengel. Ptychodera pelsarti Dakin, 1916. Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz, 1825. Ptychodera ceylonica author unknown.

Ptychoderidae

The World Register of Marine Species lists the following: Contains the following types: Ptychodera erythrea Spengel. Ptychodera pelsarti Dakin, 1916. Ptychodera ceylonica author unknown. Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz, 1825. Ptychodera bahamensis S ...

Torquaratoridae

Torquaratoridae is a family of Hemichordata that lives in deep waters. They can grow up to three feet in length and have gelatinous bodies, often brightly colored. Cilia on their underside is used to glide over the ocean floor at about 3 inches a ...

Amphoriscus

Amphoriscus gregorii Lendenfeld, 1891. Amphoriscus synapta Schmidt in Haeckel, 1872. Amphoriscus testiparus Haeckel, 1872. Amphoriscus kryptoraphis Urban, 1908. Amphoriscus ancora Van Soest, 2017. Amphoriscus semoni Breitfuss, 1896. Amphoriscus c ...

Arturia darwinii

Arturia darwinii is a species of calcareous sponge in the family Clathrinidae found on the Sunda Shelf. The species is named after the English naturalist Charles Darwin.

Ascute

Ascute is a genus of calcareous sponges. It contains two species, both found in Australia: Ascute asconoides Carter, 1886. Ascute uteoides Dendy, 1893.

Baerida

Baerida is an order of sea sponges in the subclass of Calcaronea. The types Baerida order leuconoid sponges with calcareous skeleton either composed exclusively of microdiactines, or in which microdiactines are exclusively or predominantly a spec ...

Baeriidae

Baeriidae is a family of calcareous sponges in the class Calcarea. It was named by Borojevic, Boury-Esnault, and Vacelet in 2000. The type genus is Baeria Miklucho-Maclay, 1870, by original designation, though Baeria is now considered a junior sy ...

Borojevia

Calcinea in which the cormus comprises tightly anastomosed tubes. The skeleton contains regular equiangular and equiradiate triactines, tetractines and tripods. The apical actine of the tetractines has spines. Aquiferous system asconoid.

Brattegardia

Brattegardia is a monotypic genus of calcareous sponge with a single species: Brattegardia nanseni from Norway. The genus is named after the Norwegian marine biologist Torleiv Brattegard. The species is named after Norwegian helminthologist Fridt ...

Calcaronea

Calcaronea is a subclass of sea sponges in the class Calcarea. They are Calcarea with the triactines and the basal system of tetractines sagittal, exceptionally regular. In ontogeny the first spicules to be secreted are diactines. Choanocytes are ...

Calcinea

The Calcinea are a subclass of the calcareous sponges. Its phylum is Porifera and class is Calcarea. Branching is usually dichotomous or umbellate with anastomoses, which gives rise to reticulate growths on stalks in adults. Most varieties are co ...

Clathrina

Clathrina is a genus of calcareous sponge in the family Clathrinidae. Several species formerly in Clathrina were transferred to the newly erected genera Arturia, Ernstia, Borojevia, and Brattegardia in 2013. The name is derived from the Latin wor ...

Clathrinida

The Clathrinida are an order of calcareous sponges found in marine environments. These sponges have an asconoid structure and lack a true dermal membrane or cortex. The spongocoel is lined with choanocytes.

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